Galectin-4, a member of the galectin family of animal glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), is specifically expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and is known to be able to bind microbes. However, its function in host-gut microbe interactions remains unknown. Here, we show that intracellular galectin-4 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) coats cytosolic Salmonella enterica serovar Worthington and induces the formation of bacterial chains and aggregates. Galectin-4 enchains bacteria during their growth by binding to the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, the binding of galectin-4 to bacterial surfaces restricts intracellular bacterial motility. Galectin-4 enhances caspase-1 activation and mature IL-18 production in infected IECs especially when autophagy is inhibited. Finally, orally administered S. enterica serovar Worthington, which is recognized by human galectin-4 but not mouse galectin-4, translocated from the intestines to mesenteric lymph nodes less effectively in human galectin-4-transgenic mice than in littermate controls. Our results suggest that galectin-4 plays an important role in host-gut microbe interactions and prevents the dissemination of pathogens. The results of the study revealed a novel mechanism of host-microbe interactions that involves the direct binding of cytosolic lectins to glycans on intracellular microbes.