Patients with mutations of WDR4, a substrate adaptor of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex, develop cerebellar atrophy and gait phenotypes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we identify a crucial role of Wdr4 in cerebellar development. Wdr4 deficiency in granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) not only reduces foliation and the sizes of external and internal granular layers but also compromises Purkinje neuron organization and the size of the molecular layer, leading to locomotion defects. Mechanistically, Wdr4 supports the proliferation of GNPs by preventing their cell cycle exit. This effect is mediated by Wdr4-induced ubiquitination and degradation of Arhgap17, thereby activating Rac1 to facilitate cell cycle progression. Disease-associated Wdr4 variants, however, cannot provide GNP cell cycle maintenance. Our study identifies Wdr4 as a previously unappreciated participant in cerebellar development and locomotion, providing potential insights into treatment strategies for diseases with WDR4 mutations, such as primordial dwarfism and Galloway-Mowat syndrome.